The 31-year-old has been in excellent form this season and helped snuff out Lionel Messi's threat during his country's 3-0 win over Argentina last week.
He will now skipper the Selecao in Tuesday's crucial World Cup qualifier.
Fernandinho said: “My aim is to always play for the national team and to keep the same level. I have now for the first time, the opportunity to be the captain and I am very proud. I feel very honoured, this will motivate me even more, in order to keep the level of our previous game and help Brazil to win this three points.
“To be the skipper for Brazil’s National Team is a personal and professional achievement.
“Our work allows us to reconquer things in football. Two years ago we were really criticised, but we worked hard to overcome that. I am going to share this special moment with my family.”
Brazil's clash with Peru takes place in Lima and kicks off at 2:15am GMT.
Everyone at City wishes Fernandinho the best.